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利用openssl自签SSL证书。

  最近更新时间:2018-04-05
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现在市面上有很多免费的SSL证书可供申请。但是基本上不支持针对仅IP提供SSL证书,这里可以利用自签的方法来为仅使用IP的网站开启https.

生成根密钥和根证书。

 

#生成根密钥
openssl genrsa -out cakey.pem 2048

 

#生成根证书并使用根密钥对根证书签名
openssl req -new -x509 -key cakey.pem -out cacert.pem
#这里会提示输入一些内容,可以随便输入,但是最好能够记住与之后保持一致,否则可能导致使用根证书签名服务器证书的时候出现错误,如果出现错误可以修改openssl的配置文件来解决。

生成服务器密钥和证书

这里在需要使用SSL的服务器上进行操作。

#生成服务器密钥
openssl genrsa -out server.key 2048

 

#生成服务器证书签署请求。
openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr
#这里会要求输入一些内容,Commone Name为你需要使用SSL的域名或IP。challenge password不填。

 

使用自有的根证书签署服务器证书。

将server.csr发送的根证书的机器上。
可以用使用cat命令,复制其中的文本内容,然后在根证书的机器上使用vi命令创建文件并粘贴刚刚复制的内容.

openssl x509 -req -sha256 -in server.csr -extensions v3_req -CA cacert.pem -CAkey cakey.pem -CAcreateserial -out server.crt -days 365

同样可以使用cat命令复制文本内容,并在需要使用SSL证书的机器上使用vi命令创建文件并粘贴刚刚复制的内容。

使用ssl证书

我使用的lnmp.org的一键环境,在此环境下可以使用lnmp ssl命令来简单的添加ssl证书。

lnmp ssl

添加多域名

在有的时候需要在一个证书上添加多个域名,这个时候可以修改openssl.cnf文件。

主要修改在openssl.cnf

# 确保req下存在以下2行(默认第一行是有的,第2行被注释了)
[ req ]
distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
req_extensions = v3_req

# 确保req_distinguished_name下没有 0.xxx 的标签,有的话把0.xxx的0. 去掉
[ req_distinguished_name ]
countryName              = Country Name (2 letter code)
countryName_default = CN
stateOrProvinceName             = State or Province Name (full name)
stateOrProvinceName_default = ShangHai
localityName              = Locality Name (eg, city)
localityName_default = ShangHai
organizationalUnitName             = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
organizationalUnitName_default = Domain Control Validated
commonName         = Internet Widgits Ltd
commonName_max = 64

# 新增最后一行内容 subjectAltName = @alt_names(前2行默认存在)
[ v3_req ]
# Extensions to add to a certificate request
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
subjectAltName = @alt_names

# 新增 alt_names,注意括号前后的空格,DNS.x 的数量可以自己加
[ alt_names ]
DNS.1 = abc.example.com
DNS.2 = dfe.example.org
DNS.3 = ex.abcexpale.net

其他的步骤:

openssl.cnf中会要求部分文件及目录存在:
[root@localhost]#mkdir -p CA/{certs,crl,newcerts,private}
[root@localhost]# touch CA/index.txt
[root@localhost]#echo 00 > CA/serial

如果没有openssl.cnf文件 可以自己创建一个,这里分享一个文件。

#
# OpenSSL example configuration file.
# This is mostly being used for generation of certificate requests.
#
# This definition stops the following lines choking if HOME isn't
# defined.
HOME			= .
RANDFILE		= $ENV::HOME/.rnd
# Extra OBJECT IDENTIFIER info:
#oid_file		= $ENV::HOME/.oid
oid_section		= new_oids
# To use this configuration file with the "-extfile" option of the
# "openssl x509" utility, name here the section containing the
# X.509v3 extensions to use:
# extensions		= 
# (Alternatively, use a configuration file that has only
# X.509v3 extensions in its main [= default] section.)
[ new_oids ]
# We can add new OIDs in here for use by 'ca', 'req' and 'ts'.
# Add a simple OID like this:
# testoid1=1.2.3.4
# Or use config file substitution like this:
# testoid2=${testoid1}.5.6
# Policies used by the TSA examples.
tsa_policy1 = 1.2.3.4.1
tsa_policy2 = 1.2.3.4.5.6
tsa_policy3 = 1.2.3.4.5.7
####################################################################
[ ca ]
default_ca	= CA_default		# The default ca section
####################################################################
[ CA_default ]
dir		= ./demoCA		# Where everything is kept
certs		= $dir/certs		# Where the issued certs are kept
crl_dir		= $dir/crl		# Where the issued crl are kept
database	= $dir/index.txt	# database index file.
#unique_subject	= no			# Set to 'no' to allow creation of
# several ctificates with same subject.
new_certs_dir	= $dir/newcerts		# default place for new certs.
certificate	= $dir/cacert.pem 	# The CA certificate
serial		= $dir/serial 		# The current serial number
crlnumber	= $dir/crlnumber	# the current crl number
# must be commented out to leave a V1 CRL
crl		= $dir/crl.pem 		# The current CRL
private_key	= $dir/private/cakey.pem# The private key
RANDFILE	= $dir/private/.rand	# private random number file
x509_extensions	= usr_cert		# The extentions to add to the cert
# Comment out the following two lines for the "traditional"
# (and highly broken) format.
name_opt 	= ca_default		# Subject Name options
cert_opt 	= ca_default		# Certificate field options
# Extension copying option: use with caution.
# copy_extensions = copy
# Extensions to add to a CRL. Note: Netscape communicator chokes on V2 CRLs
# so this is commented out by default to leave a V1 CRL.
# crlnumber must also be commented out to leave a V1 CRL.
# crl_extensions	= crl_ext
default_days	= 365			# how long to certify for
default_crl_days= 30			# how long before next CRL
default_md	= default		# use public key default MD
preserve	= no			# keep passed DN ordering
# A few difference way of specifying how similar the request should look
# For type CA, the listed attributes must be the same, and the optional
# and supplied fields are just that :-)
policy		= policy_match
# For the CA policy
[ policy_match ]
countryName		= optional 
stateOrProvinceName	= optional 
organizationName	= optional 
organizationalUnitName	= optional
commonName		= supplied
emailAddress		= optional
# For the 'anything' policy
# At this point in time, you must list all acceptable 'object'
# types.
[ policy_anything ]
countryName		= optional
stateOrProvinceName	= optional
localityName		= optional
organizationName	= optional
organizationalUnitName	= optional
commonName		= supplied
emailAddress		= optional
####################################################################
[ req ]
default_bits		= 2048
default_keyfile 	= privkey.pem
distinguished_name	= req_distinguished_name
attributes		= req_attributes
x509_extensions	= v3_ca	# The extentions to add to the self signed cert
# Passwords for private keys if not present they will be prompted for
# input_password = secret
# output_password = secret
# This sets a mask for permitted string types. There are several options. 
# default: PrintableString, T61String, BMPString.
# pkix	 : PrintableString, BMPString (PKIX recommendation before 2004)
# utf8only: only UTF8Strings (PKIX recommendation after 2004).
# nombstr : PrintableString, T61String (no BMPStrings or UTF8Strings).
# MASK:XXXX a literal mask value.
# WARNING: ancient versions of Netscape crash on BMPStrings or UTF8Strings.
string_mask = utf8only
req_extensions = v3_req # The extensions to add to a certificate request
[ req_distinguished_name ]
countryName			= Country Name (2 letter code)
countryName_default		= AU
countryName_min			= 2
countryName_max			= 2
stateOrProvinceName		= State or Province Name (full name)
stateOrProvinceName_default	= Some-State
localityName			= Locality Name (eg, city)
0.organizationName		= Organization Name (eg, company)
0.organizationName_default	= Internet Widgits Pty Ltd
# we can do this but it is not needed normally :-)
#1.organizationName		= Second Organization Name (eg, company)
#1.organizationName_default	= World Wide Web Pty Ltd
organizationalUnitName		= Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
#organizationalUnitName_default	=
commonName			= Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name)
commonName_max			= 64
emailAddress			= Email Address
emailAddress_max		= 64
# SET-ex3			= SET extension number 3
[ req_attributes ]
challengePassword		= A challenge password
challengePassword_min		= 4
challengePassword_max		= 20
unstructuredName		= An optional company name
[ usr_cert ]
# These extensions are added when 'ca' signs a request.
# This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software
# requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.
basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
# Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted
# the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.
# This is OK for an SSL server.
# nsCertType			= server
# For an object signing certificate this would be used.
# nsCertType = objsign
# For normal client use this is typical
# nsCertType = client, email
# and for everything including object signing:
# nsCertType = client, email, objsign
# This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.
# keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
# This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.
nsComment			= "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"
# PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
# This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.
# Import the email address.
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# An alternative to produce certificates that aren't
# deprecated according to PKIX.
# subjectAltName=email:move
# Copy subject details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy
#nsCaRevocationUrl		= http://www.domain.dom/ca-crl.pem
#nsBaseUrl
#nsRevocationUrl
#nsRenewalUrl
#nsCaPolicyUrl
#nsSslServerName
# This is required for TSA certificates.
# extendedKeyUsage = critical,timeStamping
[ v3_req ]
# Extensions to add to a certificate request
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
[ v3_ca ]
# Extensions for a typical CA
# PKIX recommendation.
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer
# This is what PKIX recommends but some broken software chokes on critical
# extensions.
#basicConstraints = critical,CA:true
# So we do this instead.
basicConstraints = CA:true
# Key usage: this is typical for a CA certificate. However since it will
# prevent it being used as an test self-signed certificate it is best
# left out by default.
# keyUsage = cRLSign, keyCertSign
# Some might want this also
# nsCertType = sslCA, emailCA
# Include email address in subject alt name: another PKIX recommendation
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# Copy issuer details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy
# DER hex encoding of an extension: beware experts only!
# obj=DER:02:03
# Where 'obj' is a standard or added object
# You can even override a supported extension:
# basicConstraints= critical, DER:30:03:01:01:FF
[ crl_ext ]
# CRL extensions.
# Only issuerAltName and authorityKeyIdentifier make any sense in a CRL.
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always
[ proxy_cert_ext ]
# These extensions should be added when creating a proxy certificate
# This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software
# requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.
basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
# Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted
# the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.
# This is OK for an SSL server.
# nsCertType			= server
# For an object signing certificate this would be used.
# nsCertType = objsign
# For normal client use this is typical
# nsCertType = client, email
# and for everything including object signing:
# nsCertType = client, email, objsign
# This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.
# keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
# This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.
nsComment			= "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"
# PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
# This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.
# Import the email address.
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# An alternative to produce certificates that aren't
# deprecated according to PKIX.
# subjectAltName=email:move
# Copy subject details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy
#nsCaRevocationUrl		= http://www.domain.dom/ca-crl.pem
#nsBaseUrl
#nsRevocationUrl
#nsRenewalUrl
#nsCaPolicyUrl
#nsSslServerName
# This really needs to be in place for it to be a proxy certificate.
proxyCertInfo=critical,language:id-ppl-anyLanguage,pathlen:3,policy:foo
####################################################################
[ tsa ]
default_tsa = tsa_config1	# the default TSA section
[ tsa_config1 ]
# These are used by the TSA reply generation only.
dir		= ./demoCA		# TSA root directory
serial		= $dir/tsaserial	# The current serial number (mandatory)
crypto_device	= builtin		# OpenSSL engine to use for signing
signer_cert	= $dir/tsacert.pem 	# The TSA signing certificate
# (optional)
certs		= $dir/cacert.pem	# Certificate chain to include in reply
# (optional)
signer_key	= $dir/private/tsakey.pem # The TSA private key (optional)
default_policy	= tsa_policy1		# Policy if request did not specify it
# (optional)
other_policies	= tsa_policy2, tsa_policy3	# acceptable policies (optional)
digests		= md5, sha1		# Acceptable message digests (mandatory)
accuracy	= secs:1, millisecs:500, microsecs:100	# (optional)
clock_precision_digits  = 0	# number of digits after dot. (optional)
ordering		= yes	# Is ordering defined for timestamps?
# (optional, default: no)
tsa_name		= yes	# Must the TSA name be included in the reply?
# (optional, default: no)
ess_cert_id_chain	= no	# Must the ESS cert id chain be included?
# (optional, default: no)

在签名的时候将openssl包含进去就可以了。

openssl x509 -req -sha256 -extfile 路径/openssl.cnf -in server.csr -extensions v3_req -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial -out server.crt -days 365

使用certtool工具简单生成证书

上面的一些过程可以使用certtool工具实现相似的功能。
安装软件。

apt-get install gnutls-bin -y

在当前目录新建一个文件夹(要养成不把文件乱扔的习惯)。

mkdir ssl && cd ssl

生成 CA证书
然后用下面的命令代码(8行一起复制一起粘贴一起执行),其中的两个 hello 可以随意改为其他内容,不影响。

echo -e 'cn = "hello"
organization = "hello"
serial = 1
expiration_days = 365
ca
signing_key
cert_signing_key
crl_signing_key' > ca.tmpl

然后我们生成证书和密匙:

certtool --generate-privkey --outfile ca-key.pem
certtool --generate-self-signed --load-privkey ca-key.pem --template ca.tmpl --outfile ca-cert.pem

生成服务器证书
继续用下面的命令代码(6行一起复制一起粘贴一起执行),其中的 1.1.1.1 请改为你的服务器IP,而 hello 可以随意改为其他内容,不影响。

echo -e 'cn = "1.1.1.1"
organization = "hello"
expiration_days = 365
signing_key
encryption_key
tls_www_server' > server.tmpl

然后我们生成证书和密匙:

certtool --generate-privkey --outfile server-key.pem
certtool --generate-certificate --load-privkey server-key.pem --load-ca-certificate ca-cert.pem --load-ca-privkey ca-key.pem --template server.tmpl --outfile server-cert.pem

大概就是这样。

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